Organic compounds found in protoplanetary disks

first_img More information: Organic Synthesis via Irradiation and Warming of Ice Grains in the Solar Nebula, Science, DOI: 10.1126/science.1217291ABSTRACTComplex organic compounds, including many important to life on Earth, are commonly found in meteoritic and cometary samples, though their origins remain a mystery. We examined whether such molecules could be produced within the solar nebula by tracking the dynamical evolution of ice grains in the nebula and recording the environments they were exposed to. We found that icy grains originating in the outer disk, where temperatures were <30 K, experienced UV irradiation exposures and thermal warming similar to that which has been shown to produce complex organics in laboratory experiments. These results imply that organic compounds are natural byproducts of protoplanetary disk evolution and should be important ingredients in the formation of all planetary systems, including our own. Solar System Shield © 2012 Citation: Organic compounds found in proto-planetary disks (2012, March 30) retrieved 18 August 2019 from Proto-planetary disks, such as that thought to have surrounded our Sun before the planets were formed, are rotating disks of gas and grains of dust, and are believed to be themselves to have been formed from dark molecular clouds. Scientists think the disks are the precursors of the planets and other planetary materials such as comets and asteroids, which form when the icy grains of dust within the disks coalesce together to form larger and larger chunks of rock.Fred Ciesla of the University of Chicago and NASA astrophysicist Scott Sandford used computer modelling to test the hypothesis that organic compounds could be formed within the proto-planetary disk of our solar system, and need not be inherited from the clouds from which the disks formed. The model tracked the movement of thousands of individual ice-covered dust grains over a period of a million years. Most of the particles survived the period studied, and while some were captured by the Sun, many moved to outer areas above the plane of the disk, where they were exposed to high-energy photons of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and warmer temperatures to evaporate the ice.The computer model showed that conditions on the disks, including the levels of UV radiation, are similar to those in earlier laboratory experiments in which tiny, ice-covered grains of dust were exposed to UV radiation. The experiments showed that molecular bonds of compounds within the dust could be broken and the atoms could recombine to form complex organic molecules.Organic compounds are the building blocks of life on Earth, and include amino acids and the nucleic bases that make up the DNA and RNA molecules.In their paper in the journal Science, Ciesla, a planetary scientist, said the model for the proto-planetary disk in our solar system needed no special conditions, and the findings “fell out naturally,” which means similar findings are also likely in models of proto-planetary disks around other stars, since the dynamics, turbulence, and other features included in the model should be present in all such disks.The processes by which any organic molecules formed on the proto-planetary disk could have ended up on Earth are still unclear, because in the early stages of Earth’s formation it would have been a molten mass in which any organic compounds present would have been destroyed. One theory is that the organic compounds were able to survive intact on comets and asteroids, where temperatures would not have been so high. Organic compounds such as amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, have also been found on meteorites hitting the Earth, which demonstrates that they can survive in space. Journal information: Sciencecenter_img Water’s Early Journey in a Solar System. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech ( — A new study from scientists in the US has reported that organic compounds could be formed in proto-planetary disks, and could have seeded the development of life in our own and other planetary systems. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore furtherlast_img read more

Satellite proposed to send solar power to Earth

first_img © 2012 Phys.Org This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. More information: … nkins_sps_alpha.html Image credit: John Mankins IAA says ‘Yes We Can’ to power plants in orbit Citation: Satellite proposed to send solar power to Earth (2012, April 11) retrieved 18 August 2019 from Mankins idea is a bio-mimetic approach, meaning it’s based on the way something in nature goes about handling a similar situation. In this case, it appears that something is the common flower, which uses its petals to collect solar energy. Mankins idea is to build petals out of an array of many small mirrors that would direct sunlight to solar cells. The energy created by the solar cells would then be converted to microwaves which would be broadcast or beamed back to a receiving station on Earth, where electricity (perhaps as much as tens of thousands of megawatts) would be generated from the energy in the microwaves. To make the project feasible, the mirrors and solar cells would be small and lightweight so that they could be easily transported into space using conventional transport vehicles. And because it would be component based, construction costs would be much lower than other proposed ideas. ( — Artemis Innovation Management Solutions has been given some seed money by NASA to look deeper into a project the company first proposed last summer; namely, building a satellite that could collect energy from the sun and beam it back down to Earth to add to the electrical grid. Building such a satellite has been bantered about for several decades by various groups and scientists, but until now, no one had come up with a design that would work given all the constraints of the time. But now, an idea proposed by longtime NASA engineer John Mankins, now with Artemis, has clearly created enough interest within NASA that some money to investigate the idea is being offered. The project called Solar Power Satellite via Arbitrarily Large PHased Array (SPS-ALPHA) would make use of thin filmed mirrors to reduce weight which would be curved to take maximum advantage of the sunlight it receives. Also, the satellite would sit far enough away from planet Earth so that it would never be in the dark, allowing for a constant stream of microwaves.The initial seed money is to carry out a feasibility and proof of concept study. If NASA likes what it sees, the next step would likely be the construction of a pared down, cheaper version of the project working from a near Earth orbit. If that works out as planned, than the full scale satellite would be built and sent up, perhaps becoming the game changing solution to energy production that so many researchers the world over have been looking for. Explore furtherlast_img read more

Google Glass Specs on specs API docs mark busy week

first_img © 2013 Google Mirror API: Menu Items How It Feels [through Glass] In related news, Google is showing MyGlass, which allows the user to configure and manage the Glass device. “If you don’t have Glass, then downloading this will be a waste of time,” said the note. Google this week also published documentation for the Mirror API. This is the programming interface for developers, to create related Google Glass services. “Today we’re releasing the API documentation and a bunch of example code, so even though the API is in a limited developer preview, you can start dreaming with us,” Google developer programs engineer Jenny Murphy said, in a post this week. Citation: Google Glass: Specs on specs, API docs mark busy week (2013, April 16) retrieved 18 August 2019 from Google Mirror API: Timeline Cards Officially announced for Glass Explorer edition, the spec details presented this week carry the official word about display, camera, storage and battery life. The display is described as a high-resolution display being the equivalent of a 25-inch high definition screen from eight feet away. Google Glass will have a camera that is capable of capturing 5-megapixel images and video at a resolution of 720p. Google Glass owners can expect 12 GB of usable memory, synced with Google cloud storage. As for battery use, typical use will translate into one full day; Google said, however, that features such as Hangouts and video recording will be more battery-intensive. Concerns about wearable comfort are addressed: The device will come with adjustable nosepads, with extra nosepads in two sizes. The Audio is described as Bone Conduction Transducer. Connectivity is Wifi-802.11b/g and Bluetooth. A micro USB cable and charger will be included. Compatibility? Any Bluetooth-capable phone. ( —For those who are just plain curious if not serious about owning Google Glass, the specs are here on Google Glass. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. More information: … … en& … rs/posts/ … en& Google Mirror API: Contacts The documentation focuses on “Glassware,” including guides for Java and Python. The documentation goes into ample depth for writing “Glassware.” According to the Google developers site, “The Google Mirror API allows you to build web-based services, called Glassware, that interact with Google Glass. It provides this functionality over a cloud-based API and does not require running code on Glass.” The major features are described. Google Glass advocate to developers: Seize the moment (w/ video) Explore further Perhaps the best attention getter in Google’s packet of news announcements rests with the FAQ page. It reveals that Google is seeking to avert complaints and mishaps both. “As you probably know, most states have passed laws limiting the use of mobile devices while driving any motor vehicle, and most states post those rules on their department of motor vehicles websites. Read up and follow the law! Above all, even when you’re following the law, don’t hurt yourself or others by failing to pay attention to the road. The same goes for bicycling: whether or not any laws limit your use of Glass, always be careful.”Google’s advice also extends to those who might think about wearing Google Glass while doing things that are dangerous for their eyes: “Glass can’t protect your eyes from flying debris, balls, sharp objects, or chemical explosions. Using Glass while operating heavy or inherently dangerous equipment, or engaging in physical sports, could distract you, cause Glass to impact your eye, and lead you to harm yourself or others.”In answer to the question, “Is glass useful everywhere,” Google cautions that noisy areas will affect being able to hear Glass and using voice input commands. Bright sunlight will also affect the user’s ability to see the Glass screen. As for privacy concerns, Google said, “Also, you may be in certain places like a doctor’s office where those around you don’t feel comfortable being photographed or captured on video…Above all, be considerate.”last_img read more

Researchers demonstrate proof of creation of a mirror by optical matter

first_img This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. ( —A team of researchers working at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology has physically demonstrated that it is possible to create a mirror from material that is optically manipulated. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes their demo product and how it might one day lead to giant space based telescopes. Credit: T. M. Grzegorczyk et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. (2014) Explore further Currently, space based telescopes are limited by their size and weight, particularly regarding the mirror—using rockets for delivery is very restrictive—there are both size and cost issues involved. To possibly get around that problem, the researchers with this new effort are looking into taking advantage of the force produced when a laser is shot at a tiny particle.Scientists have known for some time that very tiny things can be moved around using nothing but laser light—optical tweezers are one example. Taking the idea a step further, the research team put several micrometer-sized polystyrene beads in water and placed them on a very small pane of glass. Next, they fired a laser at the beads, causing them to move close enough to one another touch—electrostatic force pulled them tightly together. Once in place the beads together formed a reflective surface—reflective enough for the device to be considered a rudimentary mirror. The researchers tested their mirror by shining a light through a plastic ruler—the light that bounced back was displayed on another surface and was clear enough for the team to make out the number “8”. This they say, suggests their simple mirror might one day lead to the construction of huge space based telescopes, effectively doing away with the much heavier models used today.Such predictions may be jumping the gun a bit, however, as there are some very serious impediments to building such a telescope. The main one of course is that such a telescope would require a constantly focused laser beam, which would of course require a lot of power—power that would have to come most likely, from the sun, which would mean sending up massive solar arrays to support the telescope which would bring back the original problem of sending up large or heavy objects.The researchers are undaunted by such hurdles, suggesting that their mirror demonstrates a path towards the future and that it doesn’t seem out of the question to believe that advances in science will make what might now seem impossible, possible © 2014 Phys.orgcenter_img More information: Optical Mirror from Laser-Trapped Mesoscopic Particles, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 023902 (2014) DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.023902AbstractTrapping of mesoscopic particles by optical forces usually relies on the gradient force, whereby particles are attracted into optical wells formed by landscaping the intensity of an optical field. This is most often achieved by optical Gaussian beams, interference patterns, general phase contrast methods, or other mechanisms. Hence, although the simultaneous trapping of several hundreds of particles can be achieved, these particles remain mostly independent with negligible interaction. Optical matter, however, relies on close packing and binding forces, with fundamentally different electrodynamic properties. In this Letter, we build ensembles of optically bound particles to realize a reflective surface that can be used to image an object or to focus a light beam. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental proof of the creation of a mirror by optical matter, and represents an important step toward the realization of a laser-trapped mirror (LTM) in space. From a theoretical point of view, optically bound close packing requires an exact solver of Maxwell’s equations in order to precisely compute the field scattered by the collection of particles. Such rigorous calculations have been developed and are used here to study the focusing and resolving power of an LTM. Citation: Researchers demonstrate proof of creation of a mirror by optical matter (2014, January 20) retrieved 18 August 2019 from Journal information: Physical Review Letters Laser tripod for better levitationlast_img read more

Rahuls Kalavati should watch out

Payal Pratap went all the way to the Kutch for her Gates of Dawn collection which opened Day One of Wills Lifestyle India Fashion Week. In its essence, it was very gypsy with its swirls, layers and volumes.  She used a lot of geometric embroidery, cross stitch and hand detailing. Models walked the ramp in gathered skirts and corset tops, angrakhas, ghagra pants in tussars, mongas, chanderis, cotton silks, net and cotton voiles. A burst of colours and rustic accessories were some of the highpoints.After Rahul Gandhi’s Kalavati comes Anand Kabra’s Taramati – but on the ramp. In colour schemes of alta red, lime, gold, ivory white, black and royal blue, Kabra highlighted the story of Taramati. Fragmented mosaics and jail patterns on doors and windows featured prominently – giving the story from Deccan a solid base. Kabra stitched the story together using malkha cotton, georgette, chiffon and crepes. read more

Curtains down

first_imgEminent actor Pankaj Kapoor, Environment Minister Prakash Javadekar and theatre director Shekhar Sen were among those who were present at the closing ceremony of the 17th edition of National School of Drama’s annual theatre extravaganza here.With Breaking Borders as this year’s theme, 12 countries participated in the festival, which witnessed 82 plays in 23 languages.The festival came to a close with the play Aadirangam, which was an ensemble of tribal performers. The various performances which were included in the play were Ghantu dance of Sikkim, Sambhalpuri and Shankh Dhwani dances of Odisha and Dappu dance of Andhra Pradesh. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’“I am happy that today I am amidst so many theatre artistes. This festival, Bharat Rang Mahotsav, also brings colour and focuses on the new edition of theatre. I am saying all these not as a minister but as a theatre lover,” Javadekar said. He also emphasised that quality should not be compromised to increase the number of plays in the festival every year.“I belong to Maharashtra and there we have a big culture of theatre. Bengal and Gujarat are the other two states where theatre is very prominent. This festival brings out the new developments in the field of theatre. We witnessed around so many plays this year and it’s a great thing. But I feel quality should not be compromised,” he said. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixPankaj Kapoor reminisced his days in NSD and discussed how the theatre has revolutionised over the period of time. “It always feels great to comeback to home (NSD). When people here were discussing the statistics of plays performed here, I was surprised. When I was in first year, our teacher shared the idea of performing 7-8 shows in Purana Quila,” the Karamchand actor recalled. “During that time, it was a revolutionary thought by him. But we did perform for 24 days with those shows and that’s how the idea of theatre festival began. It’s a matter of honour for all of us,” Kapoor said.last_img read more

HIDCO to conduct bio diversity study of Eco Park

first_imgKolkata: Housing Infrastructure Development Corporation (HIDCO) has decided to conduct a bio diversity study of Eco Park by some expert group, led by the state Forest department. Meanwhile, a photo booklet titled Echoing Green: a five year journey, has been published to celebrate five years of Eco Park. The biggest urban park in the country stands on 480 acres of land, surrounded by 112 acres of waterbody. Eco Park has been renamed as Prakriti Tirtha by Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee. It has become a great tourist attraction and over one crore people have visited the park in the past five years. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsA five acre plot near Banglar Hat has been earmarked, where Pakhibitan will be created as a virgin ecosystem for insects, birds, lizards, reptiles and fish.A preliminary study conducted so far, states that there are many types of butterflies in the Butterfly garden of Eco Park, along with three species of mammals, twenty four species of birds and 17 species of fish present in the urban park. Eco Park serves as the lungs to the people of New Town. There are 23 varieties of bamboo in the Bamboo garden. The other important gardens are Hibiscus garden, Heliconia garden, Japanese Forest garden, Rabi Aranya – the herbal garden having 241 varieties of herbs, the Tropical Rainwater garden, etc. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedThe gardens are maintained meticulously and despite the presence of so many visitors, not a single tree has been damaged by the people.There is a well maintained Butterfly garden, where some of the important varieties include Blue Mormon, Mormon, Lemon Pancy, Blue Pancy, Grey Pancy, Common Leopard, Common Rose etc. Among the birds are Stock Billed Kingfisher, White bellied Woodpecker, Rock Bush Quail, Green Munia, Malabar Whistling Thrush, etc.Once the report of study of the bio diversity of Eco Park is ready, it will throw light on the condition of the flora and fauna in the urban park.last_img read more

The spiritual self

first_imgIndia International Centre is hosting an exhibition titled Aura — The Mystery by Rajinder Kumar Saini. The show exhibits abstracts in Chinese black ink. “Aura, or the halo claimed as spiritual signature is the mystery behind universe and the life on earth. Perhaps, since the evolution of human life, whether by God or by nature, the meaning of aura had always been illusive, amazing and mysterious,” says Saini.  Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The germane of the present exhibition of paintings in Chinese black ink in abstract form is unique in its own way. The seed for the said collection was originated when her mother, then 92 years old, had entered the phase of deep meditation. In order to provide a congenial atmosphere, he started playing spiritual music to reach her inner soul. Consequently, he had to spent more than 500 hours creating  blissful music.  Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixSaini is a self-taught artist with a natural flair that was nurtured under the guidance of his teacher, late G B L Bhatnagar. Being a retired civil servant, he has been working with water colours, painting in small formats, landscapes and is a practitioner of Chinese black ink for over 25 years. He has had a number of exhibitions in India and abroad both as a solo artiste and in group exhibitions.When: On till June 9Where: Art Gallery, IIC Annexelast_img read more

Risky outdoor play good for childrens health Study

first_imgNew research shows that risky outdoor play is not only good for children’s health but also encourages creativity, social skills and resilience. Children who participated in physical activity such as climbing and jumping, rough and tumble play and exploring alone, displayed greater physical and social health, the results showed.”We found that play environment where children could take risks promoted increased play time, social interactions, creativity and resilience,” said author Mariana Brussoni, assistant professor at department of pediatrics at The University of British Columbia. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting'”These positive results reflect the importance of supporting children’s outdoor play opportunities as means of promoting children’s health and active lifestyles,” Brussoni said. “Playgrounds with natural elements such as trees and plants, changes in height have positive impacts on health, behaviour and social development of children. These spaces give children a chance to learn about risks as well as their own limits.” Safety concerns, such as injury, were seen as the main reason for limiting risky outdoor play. Playground safety standards and too much supervision prevented children from engaging in risky activities.”We recommend considering policy, practice and built environment approaches to risky outdoor play that balance safety with children’s other health outcomes,” Brussoni added. The study appeared in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. IANSlast_img read more

Bollywood celebrities endorsements row

first_imgOnline shopping is very popular mainly among the Indian youth because of the convenience it offers. In recent times new ways to save money while shopping online has taken the e-shopping trend to a new high. Shopping through deal a day coupon websites have quickly become a very popular option because of the large discounts that they offer. It also helps when a big celebrity name is attached to these sites. Celebrity endorsements though should not act as an authentic proof while shopping online. More often than not many websites use celebrity names without their prior permission in order to plug in their products.  Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’On closely inspecting the products of one such website it was revealed that the quality and the materials delivered by it were way below par as well as defective. On contacting the customer care of the company through e-mails and phone calls in order to demand refunds, there was no positive response. The company CEO on being contacted said that the complaint had to go through a customer policy, without providing any relevant answers to any queries. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with Netflix On checking the details of the website it was revealed that the website had a lot of celebrity endorsements which after further probe turned out to be a farce. Apparently the photos of these celebrities were taken without their consent. Celebrities Chitrangada Singh and Gauhar Khan, whose photos were used without prior permission, said that they were not associated with any online shopping website. Mandira Bedi said “I am shocked to hear about the incident and I can assure you that I am not associated or ever endorsed any company bearing that name. I don’t know why are they  using my photographs,” while a spokesperson representing Sushmita Sen revealed, “Sushmita Sen was interested in endorsing or launching some online shopping material, but now she is not keen to be associated with any online platform and she has not endorsed  for anyonline company for sure. Other celebrities whose pictures and names that were also used are Vidya Balan, Madhuri Dixit, Deepika Padukone, Kareena Kapoor, Sridevi, Kajol, Shraddha Kapoor Jacqueline Fernandez, Priyanka Chopra, Kangana Ranaut, Aishwarya Rai Bachchan all of whom were unavailable for comments. Advocate Falguni Brahmbhatt said, “The accused website can be booked for cheating and a complaint can be lodged against them for infringement of copyrights and the IT Act.”last_img read more